Youth Employment Toolkit

Summarising the available, high-quality evidence on the impact, cost and effectiveness of common interventions that are used to help young people get into work.

This first edition of the toolkit contains information on seven interventions. It is based on findings from published impact studies, including a network meta-analysis of quantitative data. This means we can present the impact of individual interventions as components of youth employment programmes.


On-the-job training

On-the-job training aims to develop young people’s vocational skills for specific jobs and sectors through learning that takes place primarily in the workplace, and alongside or embedded with paid or unpaid work.
Impact Evidence strength Costs

Basic skills training

Basic skills training seeks to help young people develop literacy, numeracy and/or digital skills that are needed for work and learning but are not specific to a particular occupation.
Impact Evidence strength Costs


Off-the-job training aims to develop young people’s vocational skills for specific jobs and sectors through learning that takes place primarily outside the workplace.
Impact Evidence strength Costs

Life skills training

Life skills training aims to develop young people’s interpersonal and psychosocial skills for work, through different kinds of instruction and/or activity.
Impact Evidence strength Costs

Wage subsidy progammes

Wage subsidy programmes offer payment to employers who agree to employ people from a specific social group who might otherwise struggle to access the labour market.
Impact Evidence strength Costs


Apprenticeships combine paid on-the-job training with off-the-job training, in programmes that usually last for at least a year of full-time engagement.
Impact Evidence strength Costs

Mentoring and coaching

A mentor or coach can offer guidance and support to a young person to identify goals and overcome challenges.
Impact Evidence strength Costs
Showing 7 of 7 results


The Youth Employment Toolkit is published by the Youth Futures Foundation.

The Toolkit includes references to third party research and publications which Youth Futures Foundation is not responsible for, and cannot guarantee the accuracy of.

While every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the information that the toolkit contains, Youth Futures Foundation makes no warranty (express or implied) regarding that information and does not accept responsibility for any errors, omissions, or misleading statements that the toolkit or the materials it refers to may contain.

The impact of any youth employment intervention depends on the context and quality of implementation, and if you use the Youth Employment Toolkit as the basis for an intervention you should consider carefully how best to implement it in your particular circumstances. You should also check that you are using the most up-to-date version of the Toolkit, as it will be updated on an ongoing basis as new information becomes available. As a consequence, Youth Futures Foundation does not accept responsibility for the outcomes or impacts of interventions planned using information from the Youth Employment Toolkit.

Skip to content